One of the major problems in the drilling process is drill blockage. This problem can be solved in different ways; the best and most practical way is to use nanoparticles in the drilling mud structure. Nanoparticles are capable of forming hydrophobic films on drills and other stabilizing surfaces. The same properties make the nanoparticle drilling mud have a higher surface area to volume ratio and lower concentration compared to the macro and micro base drilling mud. Therefore, it can be very effective in drilling areas with reactive, flexible, and adherent rocks, which have high adhesion;
In the remainder of this article, we will examine more detail about the ways nanoparticles can be affected in this field.
Reduced torsional torque and post force
The nano-based drilling mud is capable of producing a continuous, thin film of lubricant at the boundary between the tube and the wall due to its very fine particles and the thin film produced from the nanoparticles. This causes a noticeable reduction in frictional resistance between the pipe wall and the well wall.
Also, fine nanoparticles are usually spherical. This feature provides a very thin layer with a bearing surface between the pipe wall and the well wall. This bearing surface allows the material to slide on surfaces more smoothly.
The description of this phenomenon well illustrates the amazing effect of nano-based smart fluids in reducing torsional torque and post force.
It is important to note that the equipment inside the well is always subject to abrasion forces, and this is due to the high kinetic energy of the particles in the lower levels of the formation. These problems (especially in horizontal wells, which cause wear and tear of equipment in the wells).
Therefore, the use of nanoparticles, in addition to increasing the work speed, can also be effective in reducing equipment depreciation. Also, in terms of environmental health, using nanoparticles is more advised than other drilling mud additives. This is because it is added to the mud with a lower percentage and creates less environmental pollution.
Toxic gases removal
Another way to reduce the friction between the material in the well and the drill bit is to remove the toxic gases. Hydrogen sulfide is one of the highly toxic, corrosive and dangerous gases. It penetrates into the mud during the drilling process of the formation, causing drilling mud contamination.
This contamination must be removed from the drilling mud to protect workers’ health, prevent environmental contamination, as well as corrosion reduction and destruction of pipelines and drilling equipment. Herein, nanoparticles come with the help of experts and are effective in removing this toxic gases.
Various studies have shown that nanoparticles are able to remove hydrogen sulfide from aqueous mud by a chemical reaction. The effect of these nanoparticles on the removal of hydrogen sulfide from the drilling mud compared with the results of zinc oxide particles showed that the zinc oxide nanoparticles could not be completely eliminated in the same operating conditions. Zinc the body with 2.5 percent hydrogen sulfide after 90 minutes.
Finally, the main functions of nanofluids in drilling mud can be to minimize fluid discharge, maintain and enhance well stability, reduce drilling mud, reduce torsional torque and post force, eliminate toxic gases, cope with temperature challenge, high tank pressure and control drilling mud weight.